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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  December 20, 2014 6:00pm-6:31pm PST

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french jews packing up to two israel. british muslims standing up against islamist extremism, and german bureaucracy -- scoring a goal for asylum seekers. first, to france, where there are fears that anti-semitism is on the rise. france has the largest jewish population in europe, but the
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number of anti-semitic incidents doubled this year. the worry is as the conflict between israel and the palestinians worsens, tensions are rising between jews and muslims in europe, which appears to be leading to a new source of anti-semitism where criticism of israel's foreign policy in gaza is turning into aggression towards jewish people themselves. as a result, record numbers of french jews are deciding to leave france for israel. >> immigration is a lot of work. organizationally, physically, and emotionally. this family is packing up to move. >> the whole name has to fit on the box. >> so, our 42nd box is finished. >> they are a jewish family. they have lived in this paris
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suburb for more than 10 years. the children were born here. the family runs a thriving business selling motor scooters, but they say it's time to leave. >> if you wear a yarmulke in the paris metro, you will not be a tax, but people gawk at you. it's hard to endure those looks. >> it depresses and frightens the family to see graffiti the facing jewish-owned shops. anti-semitism seems to be on the rise in france. >> there are clear historical parallels. these slogans scored on stores owned by jews -- we saw that back in the 1930's. one day, we'll wake up here and see a new night of broken glass. that could happen in france today. >> many young jews say they no longer feel safe, especially in socially depressed neighborhoods. some young muslims have brought the israeli-palestinian conflict into the french suburbs, and they have support from left-wing
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pro-palestinian groups, which sometimes also set the tone at universities. that makes some jewish parents worry about their children's educational future. >> my children will soon go to college. i don't know how that will turn out. we all know what is happening at the universities these days. my children will not be able to say openly that they feel tied to israel or even just that they are jews. >> people will point them out, and the other students will provoke them. >> the smear campaign against jews is not limited to the left wing extremist scene. this comedian fills whole concert halls with his anti-semitic show. hundreds of thousands of french people have visited the internet pages of this right-wing extremist intellectual.
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he openly praises hitler, for example, saying the nazis construction of highways to the east rescued the german economy. he likes to present photographs of himself in the ragged uniform of a concentration camp guard. one of many french adherents of right-wing views. >> no one has anything against the average jew. that would be unjust. the attacks here focus on a very few people. the jews at the top of the heap in our whole current system. >> growing numbers of people in france are starting to believe and anti-semitic conspiracy theories. >> the climate has changed. more and more people think his appalling anti-semitic jokes are harmless.
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it's a kind of jew hatred light that more and more frenchmen now accept, but for the jews, it's a very serious matter. >> violent attacks on jews are also increasing in broad daylight on the streets and even in their homes. a month ago, three young men injured this apartment building, rang the doorbell, and assaulted the owner when he opened the door. >> i slipped. while i was falling, i just managed to get in a punch. then, i lay on the floor, and they were all eating and kicking me. with their hands and with their feet. all three of them. >> he called out to his son for help, and the attackers fled, but since then, he has lived in fear they could return.
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his family originally came from morocco. his father was a printer and worked hard to move up in the world. he taught his son to love french literature and philosophy. the prospect of moving far away from french culture depresses him. >> i wish the french had shown us that we were welcome here. after all, i'm french, too. i'm angry and sad. i have to leave some of my relatives behind. and i have to give up my job. i go with a heavy heart. but i have to think of my children. >> his son is glad to go. in the future, he will be able to wear a yarmulke without being harassed. >> i really feel at home in israel. i love france, too, but i feel better in israel.
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there, i can say what i feel, and the other people think like i do. life will be better there. >> other families will be following them. they can no longer live without fear in france, even though it's their home. >> meanwhile, conflict in the middle east is also having an impact on britain. the so-called islamic state, a brutal extremist group, now controls large swathes of syria and iraq. the worry in europe is that young people are being recruited to join the fight, particularly in britain, which has a large muslim population. they are often recruited with slick youtube videos romanticizing the fight against the west or sophisticated campaigns from social media, but now, young british muslims are standing up against the fanatics by using some of the very same online tactics.
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>> terror is just a mouseclick away. on the internet, islamists call unbelievers to wage a holy war, but a counterattack is under way . the extremists aim to win hearts and minds, but in britain, young muslims are fighting back against the fanatics. in west london, we meet a girl and one of her friends, british citizens who have pakistani roots. though they say that most of all, they identify as muslim. but when it comes to islamic state's campaign of terror, they say, "not in my name." they are just teed up of the faces -- two of the faces behind the campaign with the twitter #notinmyname. muslims are denouncing i.s. violence. >> we must get together and try to stop this group from damaging islam.
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>> there are loads of muslim people from various backgrounds, cultures, speaking out and condemning the actions of isis, kind of regarding them as a kind of terrorist organization, basically saying, this is not what our religion stands for. this is a religion rooted in peace, only peace, and this is not what we believe in. >> but the i.s. propaganda machine has also successfully used social media to recruit young people to its cause. in this video, british muslims try to persuade their countrymen to engage in jihad. but some 500 fighters in syria and a rat come from the u.k.. they also target young women, urging them to come and cook and so for the fighters. and estimated 60 british young women may have joined the jihadists. among them, this 15-year-old from bristol, who is believed to be in syria. she cannot understand why. she is 19 and is pursuing a
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degree in oriental studies. she thinks muslim women in britain enjoy a wealth of opportunities, and she hopes the twitter campaign will keep girls from being misled. >> if you want to make a change or a certain voice, do so. here in the u.k. where your voice will be heard, but you have rights where there are women's rights, minority rights, freedom of speech, freedom to practice your own religion, whereas in syria, you will not have any of that. >> some 3 million muslims live in britain. cardiff in wales is home to one of the country's oldest muslim communities. many of the british isp to scum from here -- many of the british i.s. fighters come from hre. >> it helps to make students recognize extremist propaganda
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and to help them know that the west is not their enemy. >> grooming, radicalization, things like that. it helps to understand how people want to influence your mind. >> the teenagers talk about al qaeda and islamic state and how violent extremism often has its origins in frustration with society. even third-generation muslim immigrants often feel disenfranchised. >> to get your message across, yet? >> they want to get out and that weighs kind of understanding but still unacceptable if you are doing at the wrong way. >> i think i would be a lot more aware of people who try to influence me to do something. i know if someone was telling me how to think in their point of view in a violent way. >> the internet plays a big role in radicalizing young britons and people are looking for ways to stop it, but not everyone is happy with the not in my name
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project. under the #muslimapologies, some have tweeted sarcastic apologies for their religion. they say islamic violence is making some feel the need to apologize for anything muslims have ever done. some british politicians want to remind the public that all muslims should not be held responsible for the activities of islamic state. at the house of lords, she sees her religion as being under general suspicion of and says those who do not openly condemn i.s. are viewed as sympathizers, but why is she at fault? >> it's a most likely muslim communities here have to apologize for what is going on, you know, this terrible scenes we've seen of some western germans beheaded and truly awful footage that we have seen. but it has nothing to do with us. nothing to do with muslim communities here. >> does she think the twitter campaign has got it wrong? >> i can understand the
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campaign. i can understand that some people feel that they need to say something or come out and say not in my name. of course it's not in your name. >> still, islam is ideology continues to attract some young britons. the result is a battle for internet supremacy and the reputation of islam. she and her friend condemn jihadists who commit terror in the name of allah. they are standing up and saying not in my name. the message is simple and effective. >> it's difficult to know how to prevent young europeans being recruited by extremists online. let me know what you think about that or any of our other topics by getting in touch on twitter or by e-mail. just a few years ago, antigovernment protests in russia appeared to be gathering
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steam. i remember covering a protest in moscow back in 2011 against president clinton calling for fair elections -- in 2011 against president pugtin calling for fair elections. since the ukraine crisis, the protest movement has pretty much fizzled out, partly because many of those protesters now support mr. putin. others, meanwhile, are afraid of being labeled traitors in the face of a legend western aggression, but although taking over crimea is popular in russia, it's also very expensive, which means severe spending cuts in russia's health care system and a return to protests on the streets of moscow. >> these people say it's an outrage that 28 hospitals are being closed in the moscow metropolitan area. this woman says leaders can fly off to europe but who will treat her here in russia? she has multiple sclerosis and
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is being treated at a hospital that is slated to close, and she knows why -- because of ukraine. >> you need lots of money to keep the donetsk and luhansk republics afloat. and i'm not talking about the humanitarian supplies. there's shipping for children and the sick, but the money spent on supporting the fighters. >> the number of doctors is falling, but the military keeps growing. all of russia's public spending is going to finance the war. where is this paranoia coming from? >> this neurologist works at a hospital slated to close in december. he says there's an urgent need for reforms to modernize the old system, but the government's plans only include cuts. >> this is the destruction of moscow's health care system. it violates the russian
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constitution, and its guarantee of free health care. closing hospitals will only make it harder to care for patients. >> both doctors are convinced that only a public campaign can stop the closures. >> mr. president, i understand that public coffers are empty. i understand that the olympic but don't pay for these triumphs with human lives. >> and also works at the hospital. when the list was first made public, the physicians decided to do everything they could to fight the measure. a third of the staff here has already been fired. but the doctors continue to work. they sneak me into the hospital so i can get an impression of what's happening. the telephone is ringing nonstop.
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olga comforts patients, but she cannot admit any of them for care. >> a woman is coming to see me this week. what should i do? she is pregnant and has diabetes. my position has already been eliminated. i can only give her advice over the phone. >> the doctors say the health care crisis will only worsen. they suspect that their hospital will soon be converted into office space. >> the patients are not part of the core business. they are not bringing any revenues in for the government. doctors and teachers do not produce oil. that probably disrupts the development concept of an ideal utopian city where all the people are happy and healthy. >> patients used to line these corridors, but now, some of the medical equipment has already been removed. the patient's are his priority.
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he says he has to keep fighting for their sake. >> i can't afford to pay for treatment. i'm on a fixed pension. >> for five years, she has received care here for chronic asthma. >> to be honest, i believe the government is broke, and they are saving by cutting benefits for the little people, people who are weak and cannot defend themselves. >> public pressure has now led the city's human rights council to debate the city's austerity plans. moscow tossed deputy mayor was questioned by experts. he insists there's actually a surplus of medical care in the city. >> there are huge numbers of beds and medical personnel in moscow, and we've got to spread a limited budget around to pay a lot of people. that's why we made this
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decision. >> this public health expert says that's incorrect and that the city is destroying the system before creating alternatives for patients. >> i'm saying that the health care system is the same importance as the military system. it's my opinion, and our military system was underfinanced for years. i'm saying we need the same amount, the same rate of increasing of our public expenditures and health care as in the minister of defense. >> this month, a final decision is to be made on which hospitals will shut. they say they plan to keep up the fight. >> germany is now the most popular destination for migrants in europe, and germany takes more inside the seeker's than any other european country, around 200,000 people are
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applying for asylum here this year. the problem is that the process of granting asylum can be long and p are craddick. during that time, people are often stuck in limbo, often unable to get work or get accommodation. one way that some asylum seekers try to integrate while they are waiting is through football. >> three years ago, he fled nigeria because his political views made him a target for violence. he has applied for political asylum, but he could always be deported until asylum is issued. soccer is a good distraction until he finds out if he will be allowed to remain. >> every time we are concentrating, they come out with the time to play football. they have much relief. they think away all the problems
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and forget about the problems in that particular time they are played. >> at the football club in potsdam, refugees do not just have the chance to kick it around. they rounded their very own team . welcome, united 03. the multinational squad is not just supported by the club. fans have paid for some uniforms. >> we cook and eat with refugees, too. we have always done things together. for years now, this has been completely normal for us, and setting up a team just seemed like the next logical step. >> next season, welcome united will be playing in a local league. like all newcomers, they will start at the bottom of the table, but that's where the problems start. the international football association, fifa, requires
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every player to have a player pass. the german football association has to implement the regulation. in the case of welcome united refugee players, the association must ask in their home countries if they are already registered with clubs there. >> the process takes two or three months. the players do not always understand why it takes so long. when a german or other player from an eu country joins the team, they can get out on the pitch and play inside of two weeks. >> the social worker has often referred social soccer playing asylum-seekers to clubs. every time, it's a bureaucratic can of worms. >> up to a certain league, you can let them just do without it. countries like somalia, afghanistan, and syria have better things to do than answer these inquiries. the authorities who would issue them likely do not even exist anymore.
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>> football club -- at this football club office, they are critical of this practice. >> making an inquiry in libya, for example, when someone has come here for political reasons -- i'll tell you from the get-go, there's no point in even trying. it just wastes time, and it's got to stop. >> the state of brandenburg soccer association is responsible for welcome united 03. they admit here that home countries never respond to the inquiries. but they still defend fee for -- fifa's strict regulations. >> it could be that players are applying under fraudulent conditions, or they could already have contracts or have been banned. these things have to be checked. that is why fifa has given associations a 30-day deadline
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for responding. >> many asylum-seekers that play soccer in their free time have actually waited much longer. they feel persecuted by an uptight german system addicted to following rules, and to add insult to injury, if you want to play for points in a german league, you need even more documents. >> i think it is not allowed anywhere in deutschland for someone who does not have permanent residence to actually play with them in their football club. >> the german football association is loud about its commitment to integration in its ads, like this one, showing the parents of the world cup winning german national team. and it is true that players come from many cultures and backgrounds. but more integration at this level of the sport? fans are skeptical about that. they think the german football
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association could do far more. >> the political and social commitment that the dfb likes to brag about is not really as rooted as it needs to be in the behavior of the people who work for it. it always takes pressure from the outside to get them to recognize problems and act accordingly instead of stepping up on their own initiative and supporting measures and ideas that really would promote more integration in real life. >> the soccer club is now promising that none of the players on welcome united will have to wait long for their documents. in the coming season, they will play for points, or at least the ones who have not been deported yet will. >> that's all for today. feel free to get in touch with any comments. thanks very much for watching and see you next week, same time, same place.
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♪ awarded the 2014 noble laureates, receive their prizes, including the three developers of the blue light emitting diode. education for all. the peace prize winners illuminate the importance of children's rights. we'll see how kailash satyarthi and malala yousafzai are changing people's lifs. and illustrating the importance of color. a trend book gives creative companies hints for future designs while paying homage to the artist

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